¿Regulación del mercado o construcción de un sistema público? El debate pendiente en educación

Escrita por Miguel Caro, publicada en El Mostrador

Recuperar la educación como un derecho social universal, asumiendo además que esta constituye un factor fundamental para el desarrollo del país, pasa por dejar atrás la concepción de mercado que la caracteriza y por entenderla definitivamente como una actividad de carácter esencialmente pública. Precisamente, la operación más profunda que realizó en Chile el ideario neoliberal en educación, consistió en provocar su derrumbe como espacio de realización de lo público. Esto fue posible no solo por los cambios en la propiedad y dependencia de las instituciones educativas o en sus formas de financiamiento, sino –fundamentalmente– por la ruptura de la noción de sistema que caracterizó históricamente a la educación chilena y por la total mercantilización de su sentido y sus fines. Ello, al alero de lógicas tecnocráticas, gerenciales y autoritarias de gestión.

Efectivamente, la segmentación privatizadora, por su efecto fragmentador, imposibilitó el ejercicio colectivo de la soberanía respecto del rol de la educación en nuestra sociedad y permitió la instalación de una racionalidad de mercado como dispositivo de orientación.

Así, se dio paso a una de las reformas más relevantes generadas en dictadura y profundizada en democracia, la de convertir a toda la estructura educacional en un no sistema, dejando su direccionalidad y regulación en manos de un enorme número de instituciones prestadoras de servicios que, además de atender nichos socioeconómicamente segregados de población y obtener lucro de aquello, posibilitaron la provisión de proyectos educativos conforme a sus propios intereses y visiones, desplazando completamente el interés general de la sociedad o el de las comunidades involucradas. Precisamente, cuando el horizonte de la educación deja de estar conectado con las necesidades del proyecto país y de los sujetos que lo conforman, para radicarse en intereses individuales –desde entidades totalmente desarticuladas–, desaparece el rasgo esencial de lo público.

La mercantilización del sentido entonces –y no solo de la propiedad o del financiamiento– afectó a todos los niveles de la educación, desalojando lo común; vale decir, aquello que produce resguardo frente al surgimiento de propósitos que, en la búsqueda del beneficio individual, afectan o instrumentalizan lo colectivo.

En el caso de las escuelas, esto derivó en una noción de éxito educativo basado en el concepto de “eficacia escolar”, orientado a la competencia y al rendimiento estandarizado, limitando la pertinencia cultural de la educación y la formación integral de los sujetos; promoviendo, de ese modo, habilidades funcionales, conectadas prioritariamente con requerimientos sociolaborales y propiciadas por “pedagogías” del entrenamiento, presentadas a veces con el ropaje del activismo, de la “disciplina con afecto” o de la diversidad metodológica sin contexto.

En el caso de la educación superior, se produjo la subordinación del saber a variables económico-empresariales, generándose –entre otros efectos– el irracional desequilibrio entre la oferta académica y la estructura ocupacional, con lo que se abrieron espejismos de movilidad social y una alta depreciación de las áreas no “utilitarias” del conocimiento. Al mismo tiempo, proliferaron proyectos educativos altamente precarios, con universidades exclusivamente docentes y que en todos estos años han incurrido en una larga lista de arbitrariedades y transgresión sistemática de derechos.

Se reforzó, además, la lógica gerencial con la introducción de mecanismos competitivos de financiamiento y con un modelo de acreditación centrado en el cumplimiento de indicadores carentes de contenido, antes que en la búsqueda del conocimiento o de una relación entre este y las necesidades reales de la sociedad. De hecho, las propias universidades del Estado se han visto forzadas a actuar en dicho marco, con lo que han terminado funcionado en muchos aspectos como instituciones completamente mercantilizadas.

Transformar el modelo implica, en primer lugar, construir un sistema propiamente tal, que opere, por tanto, como una estructura debidamente articulada, que se rija por normas y fines comunes, que se conecte con los requerimientos de desarrollo del país y que considere la diversidad de necesidades educativas de las comunidades. Dicho sistema, para funcionar como garantía de derechos fundamentales en el largo plazo, debe ser dependiente del Estado y financiado íntegramente por este en todas sus funciones, conforme a criterios basales y garantizando su autonomía respecto de los gobiernos de turno, así como el acceso gratuito de sus estudiantes y la participación democrático-deliberativa de sus estamentos.

El problema está en que las iniciativas legales en educación escolar y superior –más allá de la retórica declarativa– mantienen estos dos rasgos esenciales del modelo, el de la segmentación del sector y el de la mercantilización de su sentido.

En primer lugar, hacen una asociación entre instituciones estatales y educación pública como si fueran sinónimos, sin ofrecer una definición sobre este último concepto y sin establecer orientaciones respecto de qué implica cumplir con este principio básico, más allá de los consabidos criterios tecnocráticos de gestión. Esto ocurre mientras,  al mismo tiempo, entregan a las instituciones privadas cuantiosos recursos públicos. En los hechos, los Proyectos ratifican la expresión minoritaria del componente estatal y otorgan sostenimiento financiero a entidades particulares, independientemente del carácter de sus proyectos educativos, bajo el argumento parcial de la inclusión y de la concurrencia de un listado acotado de requisitos de “calidad” centrados en indicadores formales. Más aún, en el caso de las instituciones estatales, se introduce un fuerte aumento del control burocrático de sus procesos y la injerencia directa del gobierno de turno en sus decisiones (Universidades Estatales), sin generar una efectiva democratización.

En este esquema, las escuelas particulares subvencionadas y particulares pagadas, así como las instituciones de educación superior privadas (las del G-9 tratadas de igual modo) seguirán siendo la mayoría del “sistema” (65% y 85%, respectivamente) y seguirán “educando” conforme a sus particulares intereses y visiones, promoviendo la estandarización, la competencia y respondiendo adaptativamente a las demandas del mercado. Todo esto –en la mayoría de los casos– con recursos públicos y legitimado por el check list de los nuevos criterios de regulación y acreditación, publicitados como más “exigentes”.

Con todo, más que reformas estructurales, se está haciendo política educativa sobre la base de lo que ya hay, levantando un número reducido de exigencias, solo para condicionar la entrega de recursos. Efectivamente, no se cambia el modelo modificando exclusivamente la dependencia administrativa o con el simple aumento de la matrícula estatal o, incluso, mejorando los criterios de financiamiento, si al mismo tiempo se mantiene la segmentación privatizada, la competencia entre instituciones y la ausencia de fines públicos. En ese marco, la gratuidad, por ejemplo, podría ser concedida universalmente y no cambiar el modelo actual, por lo que dicha demanda, si bien es relevante y urgente, no debiera constituir por sí sola la centralidad de la propuesta.

Transformar el modelo implica, en primer lugar, construir un sistema propiamente tal, que opere, por tanto, como una estructura debidamente articulada, que se rija por normas y fines comunes, que se conecte con los requerimientos de desarrollo del país y que considere la diversidad de necesidades educativas de las comunidades. Dicho sistema, para funcionar como garantía de derechos fundamentales en el largo plazo, debe ser dependiente del Estado y financiado íntegramente por este en todas sus funciones, conforme a criterios basales y garantizando su autonomía respecto de los gobiernos de turno, así como el acceso gratuito de sus estudiantes y la participación democrático-deliberativa de sus estamentos.

Al interior de este gran sistema público, el Estado debiera reservar bajo su propiedad una cobertura de carácter mayoritario y garantizar que todas las instituciones que reciban fondos públicos (sean o no estatales) formen parte de dicha institucionalidad. Desde allí, la educación pública en su conjunto debiera garantizar su diversificación y la expansión de su cobertura en todas las realidades territoriales del país, en todas las áreas del conocimiento necesarias, en todos los niveles de enseñanza y estar disponible para toda la población que opte por este sistema. Esto, sin perjuicio de que pueda existir educación privada, la que no debiera recibir recursos del Estado y, a su vez, estar regida por un marco regulatorio específico.

Desde el punto de vista de los fundamentos, lo público supone definir una relación activa con la promoción de valores e intereses públicos y democráticos, derivados tanto de las decisiones de la comunidad política (en los niveles nacional y local), como de la reflexión interna de sus actores. Un sistema de esta índole, sin perjuicio de estar alineado estratégicamente con el interés de la sociedad en su conjunto (mediante mecanismos participativos), requiere del rasgo de lo plural por sobre el de la pertenencia a una perspectiva doctrinaria y/o religiosa en particular. Sin perjuicio de ello, debe poner el acento en las necesidades reales de formación, en la capacidad de reflexión crítica, en la promoción de una ciudadanía activa y en la producción más amplia de conocimiento.

De igual  modo, la educación pública debe ser efectivamente inclusiva (más allá de las capacidades, vocaciones e intereses), sin discriminación de ninguna índole (etnia, clase, género, etc.)  y propiciar una formación amplia y rigurosa, a la vez que integral y culturalmente pertinente. Urge superar, en ese sentido, la noción mercantil de “calidad” y dejar atrás la estandarización curricular-evaluativa, el gerencialismo de circuito productivo y el mercado como finalidad.

Así concebido, lo público no puede ser entonces un atributo autoconferido por parte de instituciones aisladas, ni responder a una simple declaración de “vocación” pública, precisamente porque tal condición requiere de la adscripción a un sistema y a las definiciones que lo fundamentan.

Difícilmente se podrá resolver la crisis de la educación si las iniciativas legales insisten en tomar el camino de la regulación (parcial) del mercado y no la de construir un sistema público propiamente tal (más allá de lo estatal); un sistema que trascienda al estrecho interés de actores particulares o corporativos, poniéndose al servicio de la comunidad y de la construcción de una sociedad verdaderamente democrática, que avance decididamente en la dirección de romper con las ataduras de la mercantilización de nuestras vidas.

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